United States Constitution (See
the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare,
and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for
the United States of America.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist
of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen
every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in
each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most
numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained
to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen
of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among
the several States which may be included within this Union,
according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined
by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those
bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians
not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. (See Note 2)
The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after
the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and
within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as
they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall
not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall
have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration
shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled
to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence
Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia
ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State,
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election
to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and
other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
Clause 1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators
from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, (See Note 3) for six Years;
and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of
the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may
be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first
Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year,
of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and
of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so
that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies
happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which
shall then fill such Vacancies. (See Note 4)
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant
of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President
of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President
pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when
he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief
Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without
the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States:
but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject
to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to
Clause 1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and
Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof;
but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except
as to the Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and
such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, (See
Note 5) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications
of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do
Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized
to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such
Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence
of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may
in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of
the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire
of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without
the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days,
nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall
Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for
their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the
United States. (See Note 6) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony
and Breach of the Peace, beprivileged from Arrest during their Attendance at
the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from
the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned
in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which
he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the
Authority of the United States, which shall have been created,
or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during
such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United
States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance
Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives;
but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives
and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented
to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall
sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections
to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall
enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed
to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds
of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent,
together with the Objections, to the other House, by which
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds
of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases
the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays,
and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill
shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.
If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten
Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented
to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had
signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent
its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except
on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President
of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect,
shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall
be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives,
according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case
of a Bill.
Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts
and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general
Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be
uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin,
and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities
and current Coin of the United States;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right
to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the
high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money
to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land
and naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws
of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia,
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively,
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training
the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever,
over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may,
byCession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress,
become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and
to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the
Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall
be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards,
and other needful Buildings;--And
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States,
or in any Department or Officer thereof.
Clause 1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress
prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may
be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety
may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in
Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed
to be taken.
(See Note 7)
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce
or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another:
nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged
to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and
Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money
shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:
And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them,
shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present,
Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any
King, Prince, or foreign State.
Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation;
grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make
any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill
of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts,
or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any
Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be
absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and
the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State
on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury
of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to
the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty
of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace,
enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or
with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded,
or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.
Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United
States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years,
and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected,
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole
Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may
be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative,
or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United
States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote
by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be
an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall
make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number
of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify,
and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President
of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House
of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes
shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number
of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority
of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be
more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number
of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately
chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person
have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the
said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in
chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States,
the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum
for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from
two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States
shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice
of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of
Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there
should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. (See Note
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors,
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day
shall be the same throughout the United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution,
shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall
any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained
to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a
Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of
his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers
and Duties of the said Office, (See Note 9) the Same shall
devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide
for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both
of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer
shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly,
until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services,
a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished
during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and
he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument
from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take
the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear
(or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President
of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve,
protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of
the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into
the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing,
of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power
to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except
in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of
the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the
Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors,
other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court,
and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments
are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established
by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of
such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President
alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that
may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions
which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of
the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses,
or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take
Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers
of the United States.
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States,
shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason,
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court,
and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold
their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for
their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their
Continuance in Office.
Clause 1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity,
arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties
made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty
and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall
be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State
and Citizens of another State; (See Note 10)--between Citizens of different
States, --between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign
States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers
and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the
supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the
other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have
appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such
Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall
be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where
the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed
within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places
as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Clause 1: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying
War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.
No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses
to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption
of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records,
and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general
Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall
be proved, and the Effect thereof.
Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and
Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another
State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State
from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State
having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the
Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence
of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service
or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party
to whom such Service or Labour may be due. (See Note 11)
Clause 1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no
new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State;
nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of
States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as
well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution
shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United
States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican
Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot
be convened) against domestic Violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures
of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing
Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes,
as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths
of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided
that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred
and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth
Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall
be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
Clause 1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this
Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which
shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made,
or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States,
shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every
State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution
or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive
and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the
several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support
this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required
as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between
the States so ratifying the
Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth
Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty
seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In
witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
and deputy from Virginia
by the deputies of twelve States.]
Gunning Bedford jun
Dan of ST ThoS. Jenifer
James Madison Jr.
RichD. Dobbs Spaight.
Charles 1ACotesworth Pinckney
WM. SamL. Johnson
Attest William Jackson Secretary
1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed
copy signed by Gen. Washington and the deputies from 12 States.
The small superior figures preceding the paragraphs designate
Clauses, and were not in the original and have no reference
was adopted by a convention of the States on September 17,
1787, and was subsequently ratified by the several States,
on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania,
December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia,
January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts,
February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina,
May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.
was completed on June 21, 1788.
was subsequently ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York,
July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island,
May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10, 1791.
In May 1785,
a committee of Congress made a report recommending an alteration
in the Articles of Confederation, but no action was taken on
it, and it was left to the State Legislatures to proceed in
the matter. In January 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed
a resolution providing for the appointment of five commissioners,
who, or any three of them, should meet such commissioners as
might be appointed in the other States of the Union, at a time
and place to be agreed upon, to take into consideration the
trade of the United States; to consider how far a uniform system
in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common
interest and their permanent harmony; and to report to the
several States such an act, relative to this great object,
as, when ratified by them, will enable the United States in
Congress effectually to provide for the same. The Virginia
commissioners, after some correspondence, fixed the first Monday
in September as the time, and the city of Annapolis as the
place for the meeting, but only four other States were represented,
viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; the
commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North
Carolina, and Rhode Island failed to attend. Under the circumstances
of so partial a representation, the commissioners present agreed
upon a report, (drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York,) expressing
their unanimous conviction that it might essentially tend to
advance the interests of the Union if the States by which they
were respectively delegated would concur, and use their endeavors
to procure the concurrence of the other States, in the appointment
of commissioners to meet at Philadelphia on the Second Monday
of May following, to take into consideration the situation
of the United States; to devise such further provisions as
should appear to them necessary to render the Constitution
of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the
Union; and to report such an act for that purpose to the United
States in Congress assembled as, when agreed to by them and
afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State, would
effectually provide for the same.
on the 21st of February, 1787, adopted a resolution in favor
of a convention, and the Legislatures of those States which
had not already done so (with the exception of Rhode Island)
promptly appointed delegates. On the 25th of May, seven States
having convened, George Washington, of Virginia, was unanimously
elected President, and the consideration of the proposed constitution
was commenced. On the 17th of September, 1787, the Constitution
as engrossed and agreed upon was signed by all the members
present, except Mr. Gerry of Massachusetts, and Messrs. Mason
and Randolph, of Virginia. The president of the convention
transmitted it to Congress, with a resolution stating how the
proposed Federal Government should be put in operation, and
an explanatory letter. Congress, on the 28th of September,
1787, directed the Constitution so framed, with the resolutions
and letter concerning the same, to "be transmitted to
the several Legislatures in order to be submitted to a convention
of delegates chosen in each State by the people thereof, in
conformity to the resolves of the convention."
On the 4th
of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing
the operations of Government under the new Constitution, it
had been ratified by the conventions chosen in each State to
consider it, as follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania,
December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia,
January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts,
February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina,
May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June
25, 1788; and New York, July 26, 1788.
informed Congress, on the 28th of January, 1790, that North
Carolina had ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789; and
he informed Congress on the 1st of June, 1790, that Rhode Island
had ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790. Vermont, in convention,
ratified the Constitution January 10, 1791, and was, by an
act of Congress approved February 18, 1791, "received
and admitted into this Union as a new and entire member of
the United States."
2: The part of this Clause relating to the mode
of apportionment of representatives among the several States
has been affected by Section 2 of amendment XIV, and as to
taxes on incomes without apportionment by amendment XVI.
3: This Clause has been affected by Clause 1 of
4: This Clause has been affected by Clause 2 of
5: This Clause has been affected by amendment XX.
6: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXVII.
7: This Clause has been affected by amendment XVI.
8: This Clause has been superseded by amendment
9: This Clause has been affected by amendment XXV.
10: This Clause has been affected by amendment XI.
11: This Clause has been affected by amendment XIII.
12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution
of the United States (and two others, one of which failed
of ratification and the other which later became the 27th
amendment) were proposed to the legislatures of the several
States by the First Congress on September 25, 1789. The first
ten amendments were ratified by the following States, and
the notifications of ratification by the Governors thereof
were successively communicated by the President to Congress:
New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789;
North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January
19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January
28, 1790; New York, February 24, 1790; Pennsylvania, March
10, 1790; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3,
1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791.
was completed on December 15, 1791.
were subsequently ratified by the legislatures of Massachusetts,
March 2, 1939; Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April
13: Only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles
of amendment had numbers assigned to them at the time of
14: This sentence has been superseded by section
3 of amendment XX.
15: See amendment XIX and section 1 of amendment
16: Repealed by section 1 of amendment XXI.