The relationship between language, culture and communication is
quite interrelated. Culture is usually carried by the language,
and language is used to communicate. Intercultural Communication
will fail without a good understanding of the different cultures,
and understanding is not always easy.
In other words, culture can't be separated from or ignored when
learning a language in communication.
In this unit, some general concepts, models and types of communication
are introduced. What's more, some interesting cases are provided
to help the students gain insights into different cultural values
that influence intercultural communication.
1. Communication Criteria 交际要素
When Communication occurs
- there should be at least two or more communicators , A and
- there must be some contact between communicators;
- there must be a language shared by communicators;
- there must be an exchange of information .
The communicators can be human beings, animal or machine.
2. Types of Communication 交际类型
- human communication
- animal communication
- machine-to-machine communication
3. Communication Contact 交际接触方式
- Two-way contact: communicators can see each other and monitor
each other's behavior - direct communication
- One-way contact: communicators can't see each other, and
therefore can't monitor each other's behavior - indirect communication
4. Models of Communication 交际模式
- Mono-cultural language communication (同种文化语言交际): communication
between people speaking the same language.
- Unilaterally cross-cultural language communication (单向跨文化语言交际):
cross-cultural communication together with a bilingual
- Bilaterally cross-cultural language communication (双向跨文化语言交际):
communication between people /interlocutors who have
mastered both languages; they can switch freely to either of
5. Meanings in Communication 交际涵义
- Utterance meaning: "How long is she going to stay?"; Its
utterance meaning is what it normally means.
- Speaker's meaning:
the meaning the speaker has intended to convey by way
of utterance meaning.
- Hearer's meaning: the meaning the hearer
has understood on the basis of the utterance meaning.
6. Goals in a Social Situation 社会场景的交际目的
- Institutionalized goals in public places (that's accepted
by most people)
- Private goals (which are personal)
7. One Unique Feature of Chinese Politeness 中国人表示礼貌的一个主要特征
- Self-denigration and other-elevation (贬己尊人): Chinese people often
try to show their politeness by belittling themselves and elevating
others when talking face to face.